Ionic Bonding (Updated)

Metals donate (give away) electrons, non-metals receive or accept them. The objective for both is to finish up with full shells, so elements with less electrons than spaces in the outermost shell  will tend to give them away, and elements with less spaces than electrons will tend to receive them.

It’s all here….. ionic-bonding is a Word document that walks you through all the basic ideas.

Here is the ionic bonding in calcium chloride. Ca is in Group 2 and has 2 outermost electrons to give away to 2 chlorine atoms, in Group 7 with 1 space each.

In exams, when you’re asked to draw diagrams like this, you must show where the electrons go with arrows like in the diagram. Ionic compounds form giant (lattice-like)  structures which conduct electricity when either molten or dissolved because the ions are charged and are mobile. They have high mp’s and bp’s because a lot of energy is required to break a lot of bonds.

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